The Impact of Stress on Acne


  • Rizwan A Bhaijamal Department of Pharmaceutics, Parul Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Parul University,Vadodara.
  • S P Srinivas Nayak Department of Pharmacy Practice, Parul Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Parul University, Vadodara.



Acne, acne vulgaris, acne severity, acne grade, stress, stress scale


Introduction: Despite general acknowledgment of a link between stress and acne, few research have been conducted to evaluate this link. The purpose of this study was to discover the link between stress and acne severity.

Method: The research was carried out on adolescent students chosen from Singapore's Choa Chu Kang Secondary School. A total of 94 (59%) of the 160 students invited to participate in the study accepted (43 males and 51 women), and all participants provided parental informed agreement. Mid-year exams at schools were chosen as the stress model for the study. Singaporean children undergo an intensive school examination process. The outcome of such tests has a significant impact on children's long-term employment possibilities. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was utilized in this study to assess acne severity in relation to stress using the global acne grading system (GAGS). The questionnaire also contained some confounding factors related to the severity of acne.

Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, it is concluded that stress has a favorable correlation with acne severity.



Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Rizwan A Bhaijamal, Department of Pharmaceutics, Parul Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Parul University,Vadodara.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Parul Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Parul University,Vadodara.

S P Srinivas Nayak, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Parul Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Parul University, Vadodara.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Parul Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Parul University, Vadodara.


1. White GM. Recent findings in the epidemiologic evidence, classification, and subtypes of acne vulgaris. J Am AcadDermatol .1998;39:34-7.
2. Das S, Reynolds RV. Recent advances in acne pathogenesis: implications for therapy. Am J ClinDermatol 2014;15:479-88.
3. Jović A, Marinović B, Kostović K, Čeović R, Basta-Juzbašić A, BukvićMokos Z. The Impact of Pyschological Stress on Acne.ActaDermatovenerol Croat. 2017;25(2):1133-141.
4. Gade S, Chari S, Gupta M. Perceived stress among medical students: To identify its sources and coping strategies. Arch Med Health Sci. 2014;2:80-6.
5. Rasmussen JE, Smith SB. Patient concepts and misconceptions about acne. Arch Dermatol. 1983;119:570–572. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
6. Hughes H, Brown BW, Lawlis GF, Fulton GE. Treatment of acne vulgaris by biofeedback, relaxation, and cognitive imagery. J Psychosom Res. 1983;27:185–191. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
7. Dhabhar FS. Stress, leukocyte trafficking, and the augmen-tation of skin immune function. Ann N Y AcadSci 2003; 992: 205–217.
8. Garg A, Chren MM, Sands LP, Matsui MS, Marenus KD, Feingold KR, Elias PM. Psychological stress perturbs epi-dermal permeability barrier homeostasis: implications for the pathogenesis of stress-associated skin disorders. Arch Dermatol 2001; 137: 53–59.
9. Revol O, Milliez N, Gerard D. Psychological impact of acne on 21st-century adolescents: decoding for better care. Br J Dermatol. 2015;172(1):52-8.
10. Kumar S, Singh R, Kaur S, Mahajan BB. Psychosocial impact of acne on quality of life in North India: A hospital-based cross-sectional study. J Pak AssocDermatol. 2016;26(1):35-39.
11. Yang YC, Tu HP, Hong CH, Chang WC et al. Female gender and acne disease are jointly and independently associated with the risk of major depression and suicide: A national population-based study. BioMed Res Int. 2014:1-7.
12. Dréno B. Assessing quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris. Am JClinDermatol. 2006;7(2):99-106.
13. Shahzad N, Nasir J, Ikram U, Qadir A et al. Frequency and psychosocial impact of acne on university and college students. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2011;21(7):442-3.
14. Kanwar, I.L., Haider, T., Kumari, A., Dubey, S., Jain, P., &Soni, V. (Year). Models for acne: A comprehensive study. Journal Name, Volume(Issue), Page numbers. DOI: 10.5582/ddt.2018.01079.
15. Dawson AL, Dellavalle RP. Acne vulgaris. BMJ. 2013 May 16;346:f2634. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f2634. PMID: 23657180.
16. Linn MW. Modifiers and Perceived Stress Scale. J Consult ClinPsychol 1986; 54: 507–513.
17. Peltzer K, Cherian VI, Cherian L. Minor psychiatric mor-bidity in South African secondary school pupils. Psychol Rep 1999; 85: 397–402.
18. Siqueira L, Diab M, Bodian C, Rolnitzky L. Adolescents becoming smokers: the roles of stress and coping methods. J Adolesc Health 2000; 27: 399–408.
19. Pollard LJ, Bates LW. Religion and perceived stress among undergraduates during fall 2001 final examinations. Psychol Rep 2004; 95: 999–1007.
20. Chiu A, Chon SY, Kimball AB. The response of skin di-sease to stress: changes in the severity of acne vulgaris as affected by examination stress. Arch Dermatol 2003; 139: 897–900.
21. Exercise: A Guide to Tai Chi. [(accessed on 25 February 2020)];2019 Available online:
22. Svetlov A.S., Nelson M.M., Antonenko P.D., McNamara J.P., Bussing R. Commercial mindfulness aid does not aid short-term stress reduction compared to unassisted relaxation. Heliyon. 2019;5:e01351. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01351. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
23. Puranik K.A., Kanthi M. Wearable Device for Yogic Breathing; Proceedings of the 2019 Amity International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AICAI); Dubai, UAE. 4–6 February 2019; pp. 605–610. [Google Scholar]
24. NICE . Depression in Adults: Recognition and Management. Clinical Guideline [CG90] National Institute for Clinical Excellence; London, UK: 2009. [Google Scholar]
25. Huston P., McFarlane B. Health benefits of tai chi. Can. Fam. Physician. 2016;62:881–890. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
26. PauseAble—Mindfulness in Motion. [(accessed on 24 November 2019)]; Available online:
27. Castaldo R., Montesinos L., Melillo P., Massaro S., Pecchia L. EMBEC & NBC 2017. Springer; Singapore, Singapore: 2018. To What Extent Can We Shorten HRV Analysis in Wearable Sensing? A Case Study on Mental Stress Detection; pp. 643–646. [Google Scholar]
28. Fernández J.R.M., Anishchenko L. Mental stress detection using bioradar respiratory signals. Biomed. Signal Process. Control. 2018;43:244–249. doi: 10.1016/j.bspc.2018.03.006. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
29. Giannakakis G., Pediaditis M., Manousos D., Kazantzaki E., Chiarugi F., Simos P.G., Marias K., Tsiknakis M. Stress and anxiety detection using facial cues from videos. Biomed. Signal Process. Control. 2017;31:89–101. doi: 10.1016/j.bspc.2016.06.020. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
30. Castaldo R., Xu W., Melillo P., Pecchia L., Santamaria L., James C. Detection of mental stress due to oral academic examination via ultra-short-term HRV analysis; Proceedings of the 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC); Orlando, FL, USA. 16–20 August 2016; pp. 3805–3808. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
31. Vildjiounaite E., Kallio J., Kyllönen V., Nieminen M., Mäntyjärvi J., Gimel’farb G. Unobtrusive stress detection on the basis of smartphone usage data. Pers. Ubiquitous Comput. 2018;22:671–688. doi: 10.1007/s00779-017-1108-z. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
32. Gjoreski M., Luštrek M., Gams M., Gjoreski H. Monitoring stress with a wrist device using context. J. Biomed. Inform. 2017;73:159–170. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2017.08.006. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
33. Gjoreski M., Gjoreski H., Luštrek M., Gams M. Continuous Stress Detection Using a Wrist Device: In Laboratory and Real Life; Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing: Adjunct (UbiComp’16); Heidelberg, Germany. 12–16 September 2016; New York, NY, USA: ACM; 2016. pp. 1185–1193. [Google Scholar]
34. Can Y.S., Chalabianloo N., Ekiz D., Ersoy C. Continuous Stress Detection Using Wearable Sensors in Real Life: Algorithmic Programming Contest Case Study. Sensors. 2019;19:1849. doi: 10.3390/s19081849. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
35. Ciman M., Wac K. Individuals’ stress assessment using human-smartphone interaction analysis. IEEE Trans. Affect. Comput. 2016;9:51–65. doi: 10.1109/TAFFC.2016.2592504. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
36. Sysoev M., Kos A., PogaăźNik M. Noninvasive Stress Recognition Considering the Current Activity. Pers. Ubiquitous Comput. 2015;19:1045–1052. doi: 10.1007/s00779-015-0885-5. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
37. Ahani A., Wahbeh H., Miller M., Nezamfar H., Erdogmus D., Oken B. Change in physiological signals during mindfulness meditation; Proceedings of the 2013 6th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER); San Diego, CA, USA. 6–8 November 2013; pp. 1378–1381. [Google Scholar]
38. Karydis T., Langer S., Foster S.L., Mershin A. Identification of Post-meditation Perceptual States Using Wearable EEG and Self-Calibrating Protocols; Proceedings of the 11th PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments Conference (PETRA’18); Corfu, Greece. 26–29 June 2018; New York, NY, USA: ACM; 2018. pp. 566–569. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
39. Mason H., Vandoni M., Debarbieri G., Codrons E., Ugargol V., Bernardi L. Cardiovascular and respiratory effect of yogic slow breathing in the yoga beginner: What is the best approach? Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2013;2013:743504. doi: 10.1155/2013/743504. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
40. Doshi A, Zaheer A, Stiller M. A comparison of current acne grading systems and proposal of a novel system. Int J Dermatol. 1997;36(6):416–8.
41. Ingle R., Awale R. Impact Analysis of Meditation on Physiological Signals. JOIV Int. J. Inform. Vis. 2018;2:31–36. doi: 10.30630/joiv.2.1.98. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
42. (Accessed on 1st june 2023)
Kwon HH, Yoon JY, Hong JS, Jung JY, Park MS, Suh DH. Clinical efficacy of acne treatments: A network meta-analysis. JAMA Dermatol. 2013 Sep;149(9):1031-9. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2013.6476. PMID: 23863825.



How to Cite

Bhaijamal, R. A., & Nayak, S. P. S. (2023). The Impact of Stress on Acne. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 11(3), 143–150.