• Chetan Kumar Dubey Department of Pharmacology, Kota College of Pharmacy, Kota, Rajasthan, India
  • Sarika chaturvedi Shri R.L.T Group of Institution. Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Shilpi chaturvedi Shri R.L.T Group of Institution. Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, India




Stress, psychology of stress, HPA axis, ACTH


Stress is your body’s way of responding to any kind of demand or threat. When you sense danger—whether it’s real or imagined—the body's defenses kick into high gear in a rapid, automatic process known as the “fight-or-flight” reaction or the "stress response. The stress response is the body’s way of protecting you. When working properly, it helps you stay focused, energetic and alert. In emergency situations, stress can save your life—giving you extra strength to defend yourself, for example, or spurring you to slam on the brakes to avoid an accident. Stress can also help you rise to meet challenges. It’s what keeps you on your toes during a presentation at work, sharpens your concentration when you’re attempting the game-winning free throw, or drives you to study for an exam when you'd rather be watching TV. But beyond a certain point, stress stops being helpful and starts causing major damage to your health, your mood, your productivity, your relationships, and your quality of life.

Keywords- Stress, psychology of stress, HPA axis, ACTH


Download data is not yet available.


1. Aguilera and Greti. "HPA axis responsiveness to stress: Implications for healthy aging". Exp Gerontol. 2011; 46(2-3):90-5.
2. Selye H."Adaptation Energy" nature. New York State Journal of Medicine. 1938; 75:2139–45.
3. Gorban A.N.; Tyukina T.A.; Smirnova E.V.; Pokidysheva L.I... "Evolution of adaptation mechanisms: adaptation energy, stress, and oscillating death". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 2016; 405(21):127-139.
4. Cohen S.; Doyle W. J.; Skoner D. P.; Rabin B. S.; G waltney Jr J. M.. "Social ties and susceptibility to the common cold". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical.1997; 17(3):214–23.
5. Greubel, Jana and Kecklund. The Impact of Organizational Changes on Work Stress, Sleep, Recovery and Health. Industrial Health. 2011; 49(3):353-64.
6. Jeronimus, B.F.; Riese, H.; Sanderman, R.; Ormel, J. "Mutual Reinforcement between Neuroticism and Life Experiences: A Five-Wave, 16-Year Study to Test Reciprocal Causation". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2014; 10:1037.
7. File, Sandra E., and Jacalyn B. Pearce. Benzodiazepines reduce gastric ulcers induced in rats by stress. British Journal of Pharmacology. 1981; 74(3):593-599.
8. Jeanne S, Melinda S., Robert S and Lawrence R. Stress Management. American Psychological Association (2018).
9. Beehr, T.A. and Newman, J.E. Job Stress, Employee Health, and Organizational Effectiveness: A Facet Analysis, Model, & Literature Review, Personnel Psychology. 1978; 31(4):665-99.
10. Joseph Goldberg., M.D the causes of stress 2018.
11. Aylor, Shelley, Sirois and Fuschia. Health Psychology 2nd Canadian Edition. 2012.
12. McCorry, Laurie Kelly. "Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System". American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 2007; 71(4):78.
13. McKlveen J.M., Myers B, Herman James P. "The Medial Prefrontal Cortex: Coordinator of Autonomic, Neuroendocrine, and Behavioral Responses to Stress". Journal of Neuroendocrinology. 2017; 27(6): 446–56.
14. Hering D, Lachowska K, Schlaich M. Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Stress-Mediated Cardiovascular Disease Curr Hypertens Rep. 2015;17(10):80.
15. Smith, Sean M., Wylie W. "The role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in neuroendocrine responses to stress". Journal of Psychological bulletin. 2017; 130:601-630.
16. Segerstrom, S. C., & Miller, G. E. . Psychological stress and the human immune system: A meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Journal of Psychological bulletin. 2004; 130(4): 601-30.
17. Kingston C, Stekhoven S and James. "Life hassles and delusional ideation: Scoping the potential role of cognitive and affective mediators. Psychology & Psychotherapy. 2016; 10:445-463.
18. Schlotz, W., Yim, I.S., Zoccola, P.M., Jansen, L., & Schulz, P. The perceived stress reactivity scale: Measurement invariance, stability and validity in three countries. Journal of Psychological Assessment, 2011; 23(1):80–94.
19. Pinquart, M. and Sorensen, S. Differences between Caregivers and Non-Caregivers in Psychological Health and Physical Health: A Meta-Analysis. Psychology and Aging. 2003; 18: 250-67.
20. Calderon, R. Schneider, R. H., Alexander C. N., Myers, H. F. Nidich, S. I. Haney, C. "Stress, stress reduction and hypercholesterolemia in African Americans. Ethn Dis. 1999; 9(3):451-62.
21. Kobasa, S. C. The Hardy Personality: Toward a Social Psychology of Stress and Health. Social Psychology of Health and Illness. 1982; 20(15)1-25.
22. Schneiderman, N.; Ironson, G.; Siegel, S. D. "Stress and health: psychological, behavioral, and biological determinants". Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 2005; (1):607–628.
23. Herbert, T. B., Cohen, S. "Stress and immunity in humans: a meta-analytic review". Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine. 1993; 55(4):364–79.
24. Duffy, James D., and Paul F. Malloy. Efficacy of buspirone in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: an open trial. Annals of clinical psychiatry. 1984; 6.1. Page: 33-37.



How to Cite

Dubey, C. K., chaturvedi, S., & chaturvedi, S. (2018). A REVIEW ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CURRENT APPROACHES TO STRESS MANAGEMENT. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 6(5), 60–65. https://doi.org/10.22270/ajprd.v6i5.401

Most read articles by the same author(s)