Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development en-US Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development 2320-4850 <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> In-silico study of compounds of Curcuma xanthorriza against enzyme tyrosinase sac and α-MSH <p>Previous report determined that curcumin, demetoxycurcumin and xanthorrhizol are an active compounds contained in <em>Curcuma xanthorrhiza</em> which have activity in inhibiting the tyrosinase enzyme and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH )&nbsp; in&nbsp; vitro. This study aimed to determine and visualize the interaction of the&nbsp; three compounds with the tyrosinase enzyme and α-MSH in order to find their possibility for skin whitening. The experiment carried out using Auto Dock Vina program .The results of docking simulations showed that the three compounds can interact spontaneously with the tyrosinase enzyme and α-MSH. On the tyrosinase enzyme, xanthorrhizol interact most easily through the formation of hydrogen bonds with Asn205. On the α-MSH, demethoxycurcumin interact most easily through the formation of two hydrogen bonds with His3 and Arg5. With the inhibitory effect on the enzyme tyrosinase and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) means preventing the formation of skin coloring pigment melanin, indicating that the three compounds studied can be applied as skin whitening agents.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Resmi Mustarichie Danni Ramdhani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 10 3 1 5 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1135 The Potential of Albizia Saponaria compounds against Malassezia furfur: In-silico Studies Resmi Mustarichie*, Danni Ramdhani Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia <p><em>Albizia saponaria</em> has been reported as a potential anti-dandruff based on empirical use, but until now there is no scientific data showing its activity. Therefore, researchers are interested in testing gynecological fractions with in vitro and in silico approaches by targeting the fungus Malassezia furfur which is a fungus that plays a major role in producing dandruff. In silico testing was carried out by molecular docking method for the lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase receptor with a homology model using 48 compounds from the albazia genus as ligands. From in vitro testing of 3 fractions, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and water, it was found that the water fraction had a moderate inhibition zone of 17.33 mm at 15% concentration and 18.67 mm at 20% concentration, showing better results. The in silico test revealed 3 metabolites in langur plants, providing better binding energy than ketoconazole (-10.1 kcal/mol), namely kaempferol 3-rhamnosyl galactosides (-11.7 kcal/mol), acasioside A (- 10.3), and albiziasaponin E (-10.7).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Resmi Mustarichie Danni Ramdhani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 10 3 6 16 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1134 Phytochemicals of Extract N-Hexane Leaves Bangun-Bangun (Plectranthus Amboinicus) (Lour.) Spreng and Antibacterial Activity Causes Diarrhea <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This research aims to determine the secondary metabolites contained in the n-hexane extract of <em>P. ambionicus</em> leaves and to determine the effective concentration as an antibacterial causing diarrhea.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The research method was carried out experimentally with the stages of making simplicia, maceration, extract making, phytochemical screening, and antibacterial activity testing.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results of phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids/triterpenoids. The results of the antibacterial activity test showed that the n-hexane extract of <em>P.amboinicus</em> leaves at all concentrations (50%, 25%, 12.5%) had antibacterial activity in the strong category (10-20 mm).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The n-hexane extract of <em>P.amboinicus</em> leaves has the potential as an antibacterial with a strong category.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nurbaiti Br. Singarimbun Defacto Firmawati Zega Defacto Firmawati Zega Helen Anjelina Simanjuntak Hermawan Purba Kasta Gurning ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 10 3 17 20 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1133 Dental Health Promotion: A Diet That Supports Dental and Oral Health Through a Family Approach <p>Background: choosing the wrong diet and the influence of modern lifestyles can cause dental caries in children, especially the consumption of cariogenic foods. One of the community empowerment efforts is by involving community members who are willing to voluntarily be involved in dental health problems, so that dental health promotion through a family approach can improve community dental health behavior. Objective: to analyze the effectiveness of dental health promotion about eating patterns that support oral and dental health through a family approach to dental health knowledge. Methods: Methods: Pre-experimental research with pretest-posttest one group design. The sampling technique was purposive sampling as many as 50 respondents. The study was conducted at Surokarsan village, Mergangsan, Yogyakarta. The research instrument used a questionnaire and data analysis used the SPSS program with the Paired Sample Test. Results: the level of knowledge of respondents increased by 22.5 and the average value of knowledge before counseling was 57 to 79.50 with a p value of 0.016 Conclusion: Promotion of dental health about eating patterns that support oral and dental health through a family approach is effective in increasing public dental health knowledge .</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Wiworo Haryani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 10 3 21 23 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1136 The Evaluation of Anti Microbial Activity of Classical Siddha Medicine Seenthil Choornam <p>Seenthil Choornam is a Classical Siddha medicine having its ingredients with herbal andanimal origin. The raw drugs- <em>Seenthil</em> (<em>Tinospora cordifolia</em> .sp), Karisalai<em> (Ecilpta Alba</em>sp), <em>and Poonagam(Eudriluseugeniae.</em>sp) were purified and combined as per theliterature. Aim: - The aim of the study is to evaluate the anti-microbial activity of <em>Seenthil Choornam.</em></p> <p>Materials and methods: - Raw drugs were collectedfrom Keralaand Tamilnadu .The identification and authentication of plant</p> <p>drugs were obtained fromGovt.Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai. The authentication of <em>Poonagam (Eudrilus eugeniae</em>sp<em>.)</em> was obtained from Advanced Centre of Environmental Studies and Sustainable Development-Inter University Centre – Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam...Anti-bacterial and Anti-fungal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of drug is studied for its activity against four Gram positive, three Gram negative bacteria and five fungi in concentrations of 25ul, 50ul, 75ul and 100ul , using Disc diffusion method. The standard drug for comparison of anti-bacterial activity is Streptomycin and for Anti-fungal activityis Fluconazole. Result:- The aqueous extract of drug in concentrations of 75ul &amp; 100ul has&nbsp; zone of inhibition against <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> (G+ve)- (<em>19mm, 21mm</em>) <em>,Enterococcusfeacalis</em><strong>-(</strong>G+ve)in conc.75ul&amp;100ul - (11mm, 13mm), <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em> (G-ve) in conc.75ul &amp;100ul- (11mm ,13mm) , <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (G+ve)in conc. 75ul &amp;100ul-(10mm,11mm<strong>)</strong> and towards fungus -<em>Aspergillu<strong>s </strong>flavus</em>in conc. 75ul &amp;100ul ( 12mm, 13mm ) .From the above study it is evident that the classical medicine<em>Seenthil Choornam</em>is effective against human pathogens.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </p> Lalitha Sunanna A. Manoharan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 10 3 24 29 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1121 Development and validation of GCHSmethod used for trace level determination of carcinogenic Epichlorohydrin impurity in Rivaroxaban <p>A simple, sensitive, and selective Headspace-Gas chromatography (GCHS) method was developed and validated for the trace level determination of Epichlorohydrin, which is a probable carcinogenic compound and may be present as a process impurity in Rivaroxaban drug substances. Identification and separation of analytes were achieved on a DB-Wax column having dimensions of 30 m in length and a 0.53 mm internal diameter with a 1.0 μm stationary film thickness. Nitrogen is used as a carrier gas with of flow rate of 6.0 mL/min. The run time of the method is 25 minutes. The gradient column oven-temperature programming method was used for analyte elution. The developed method was validated using ICH guidelines and found a linear in the range between 9.64 ppm and 80.31 ppm. The correlation coefficient and y-intercept observed for the linearity curve are 0.9993 and 1.75%, respectively. The limit of detection and quantitation were 3.03 ppm and 9.19 ppm, respectively. Recovery was observed for Epichlorohydrin between 94.66 % and 99.22 %. The RSD for system precision, precision at LOQ, and repeatability was less than 5.0 %. The developed method can be successfully applied to determine Epichlorohydrin in Rivaroxaban drug substances up to a very low trace level concentration. The method was found to be specific, selective, linear, precise, and accurate.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr. Shaikh Tabrez Dr. Amit Gosar Neelam Mahadik Sanjay Pawar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 10 3 30 33 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1123 Preparation and Evaluation of Niosomes for the Delivery of Antioxidant to the Skin for Antiaging Purpose <p>Niosomes are unilamellar or multilamellar vesicles capable of entrapping hydrophilic and hydrophobic solutes.&nbsp; Niosomes are promising drug carriers as they possess greater stability. Niosomes is currently reported to increase drug stability, and increase the penetration of the adsorbed compound across the skin. Thus noisome could be incorporated in semisolid formulation. Quercetin niosomes were prepared by using Cholesterol, Span 80/ Span 85 as surfactants, chloroform, and diethyl ether using ether injection method. Formulation was then evaluated for particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, and in-vitro drug release studies. Niosomal Gel Prepared by Carbopol 934P and characterized as Drug Content, in-vitro Cumulative Drug Release and viscocity. Quercetin released from the Plain Gel to 68.64 in 8 hrs. The skin permeation increase of quercetin drug was recorded from vesicle Gel in comparison to plain gel and antioxidant activity performed by DPPH Method. The results showed that quercetin has considerable whitening and antioxidant capacities and Span80+85(1:2) Niosomes remarkably improved the solubility and photostability of quercetin. Furthermore, compared to quercetin solution, quercetin-niosomes had the advantages of sustained release and improved transdermal penetration. Niosomal Gel storage under refrigeration showed greater stability. The results suggested that Niosomes could better promote the transdermal delivery of quercetin, by their ability to control drug release.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Aditi Chaudhary Meenakshi Gupta Kiran Kumari Anupam Kumar Sachan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 10 3 34 39 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1127 The Comorbidities And Clinical Profile Of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Patients Attending Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) has been responsible for the decreased quality of life as well as increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of the present study was to observe the comorbidities and clinical profile of patients with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease at a tertiary care center.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The data were collected from 80 COPD patients presenting to OPD of the pulmonary medicine department from August 2021 to January 2022. The data were extracted from a medical case sheet and for statistical analysis, MS Excel was used.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: As the age increased the prevalence of COPD increased and the highest was found to be in the age group above 60 years of age. Males were more affected by COPD as compared with females. The smokers were more compared to the nonsmokers. The prevalence of smoking among COPD was noted to be 60% compared to 40% as non-smokers. The most common clinical feature was breathlessness 100% followed by cough 95%. 15% of the cases of copdhad Hypertension as the comorbidity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Breathlessness was the most common symptom at presentation and hypertension were the most common co-morbidities found.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr.Matta Sumathi P. Vani B. Babitha V.Wazeed Basha I Naveen Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 10 3 40 43 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1128 A Retrospective Assessment of The Safety Profile of Pioglitazone in T2dm Patients <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pioglitazone is a drug that belongs to the category of thiazolidinedione (TZD) and is used for its hypoglycemic activity that is very-well associated with some serious adverse drug reactions (ADR). Previous studies have dealt with country-specific pharmacovigilance databases to assess the ADR profile of pioglitazone but none of them utilized a scholarly literature database.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study was conducted to assess the safety profile of pioglitazone in terms of expectedness, causality, and the seriousness of ADR by using a literature database.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The published literature cases of pioglitazone-induced ADR from the PubMed database (between 1993 and 2020) were retrieved by using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms.Only the valid cases (as per the ICH validity criteria) were analyzed. Following this, valid cases were further assessed for the expectedness of ADR by using the "Summary of Product Characteristics" document of Takeda Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd. Seriousness criteria of WHO for ADR were used for assessing the seriousness of ADR while the Naranjo’s scale was used for causality assessment.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 871 results were found of which only 26 valid ICSRs cases were found. Of the total 168 ADRs, a total of 131 (77.97%) and 37 (22.02%) unexpected and expected ADRs were found. Only two of the events were found to be non-serious and they were Iatrogenic lipomatosis and Angioneurotic edema. 1 (32.5 %), 24 (77.4 %), 6 (19.35 %) reactions were serious due to death, important medical event, and hospitalization, respectively. There were, in total, 7 (27 %) and 19 (74 %) cases that belonged to a possible and probable category, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is worth mentioning that pioglitazone is associated with the risk of heart failure and edema besides causing bladder cancer. The patient should be evaluated for the possible adverse effects of proper monitoring and follow-ups.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Aryendu Kumar Saini Sunil Verma Himanshu Bansode Vishal Yadav Upendra Kumar Byomnath Chaubey Pratima Kushwaha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 10 3 70 77 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1096 Covid 19 Pandemic Impacts On Online Pharmacy And Offline Pharmacy With Reference To Mumbai Region <p>The Organization ( Who ) declared COVID-19 a swine flu on March 11, 2020, ushering in a global medical emergency of unprecedented scope and magnitude. The approach by countries all over the world differed slightly, but the provisions of frontline universal health care were characterized as critical to the disease outbreak reaction. COVID-19 had also entailed changes in healthcare service delivery. Respirators are one example of a modification aimed to increase public and care worker safety. Pharmacy services, particularly pharmacy moves of care options, just haven't been immune to change, bringing with them it using set of challenges to consider. Pharmacy services had played a critical role there in situation, and there was a high demand for them. That was expanding both online and offline. Methods applied to limit the effects or downturn of COVID-19, like reduced clinical training or amended user laws, had already produced obtaining the best possible prescriptions the person must've been trying to take just before to arrival at the hospital more difficult, leading to greater rely on independent sources to fulfil medication histories. To limit interaction with patients in ambulatory health centres, liking has transitioned with the use of online vs. printed version treatments, internet shopping, and use of clinic to sleep programmes and other healthcare medication delivery services for discharge prescriptions. An There has been an increased initiative to rectify prescription drug buyout troubles untreated by utilising patient assistance programmes or other inpatient programmes to pay the expenses of treatments for COVID treated cases within certain contexts. This paper examines why COVID-19 must have influenced pharmacy clips of quality healthcare website demand supply there in India.</p> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>A study is being conducted to determine the impact of the Covid 19 outbreak on online and offline pharmacies in the Mumbai region<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Rahul Baburao Ushir Dr. P. Dolly Diana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 10 3 44 51 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1129 The Review: The Discovery and Development of Amlodipine Drug <p>&nbsp;School of Pharmaceutical Science (STIFARM) Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia, 25417.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Elana Nabila Putri Meilinda Mustika Ridho Asra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 10 3 52 57 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1103 Effect of Covid-19 in Management of Lung Cancer Disease: A Review <p>COVID-19 outcomes may be more severe in lung cancer patients. As a COVID-19 pandemic spreads, it's critical to identify which people and malignancies are most susceptible. COVID-19 appears to have the worst results in lung cancer patients. Lung damage or reduced lung capacity can be caused by the disease itself or by cancer treatments such as radiation and surgery. The earlier lung cancer is diagnosed, the better the prognosis. As a result, early detection technology for cancer is in high demand. Early diagnosis in large population screens is closely connected to non-invasiveness and cost-effectiveness. As a result, microelectronic-based sensor technology may be used to construct sensitive biomarker detection systems. Various biosensors have recently recognized cancer-related proteins. Researchers are increasingly interested in testing for volatile metabolites found in the breath. Companion testing for innovative anti-cancer drugs and re-biopsy for new therapeutic uses are helping to speed up the development of lung cancer diagnostic tests. This review covers all current lung cancer diagnostic modalities in depth.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Roshan kumar Purabi Saha Richard Owusu Nyarko Priya Lokare Anubhav dubey Edward Boateng Ivan Kahwa Paul Owusu Boateng Christian Asum ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 10 3 58 64 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1131 A Comparative review on ginger and garlic with their pharmacological Action <p>It is a therapeutic aspect of medicinal herbs mentioned here. Herbal plants can treat various diseases and ailments—the list of antioxidant included antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, and circulation enhancer. It would be of great benefit in medical and surgical treatment. Those are fantastic. The promotion of the health system is easier, with medicinal plants than synthetic drugs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anju Daharia Vinod Kumar Jaiswal Kabya Pratap Royal Himanshu Sharma Anuj Kumar Joginath Roshan Kumar Purabi Saha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 10 3 65 69 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1147 A Short Review on Role of Some Natural Herbs in the Treatment of Hypertension <p>The medical term for elevated blood pressure is hypertension (HTN). It's harmful since it strains the heart and increases the risk of heart disease and stroke as well as atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). Congestive heart failure, renal damage, and blindness are all possible outcomes of HTN. Many adverse effects are commonly associated with traditional antihypertensives. For the most part, people in underdeveloped nations prefer herbal medicines for primary health care since they are more tolerable by the human body and have less adverse effects. A great deal of effort has been made over the last three decades to discover native plants that have hypotensive and antihypertensive medicinal properties. It has been established that some of these medicinal herbs have hypotensive and antihypertensive properties, whereas others have been discredited. In order to evaluate the efficacy and clarify the safety profile of such herbal treatments for their antihypertensive potential, additional scientific study must be conducted to combine ayurveda expertise with modern medicine.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Tania Khatoon Angana Naskar Aditi pal Kunal Datta Devinder Kumar Gurpreet Kaur Paramita Karmakar Ujjal Pal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-22 2022-06-22 10 3 88 93 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1142 A Prospective Study on Hypertension-Revealing it to be a key factor for various Medical Complications, their Management and Prevalence in a Secondary Care Hospital <p><strong>Background: </strong>High blood pressure or HTN is a heterogeneous group of disorder characterized by a persistent increase in blood pressure due to the force of blood pushing against the blood vessel walls, which develops over time due to unhealthy lifestyle choices, lack of awareness accompanied by low levels of treatment and uncontrolled rates lead to mortality. Globally Hypertension (HTN) affects two-third of the population resulting in 10.4 million deaths annually. Despite several initiatives, the prevalence of HTN and its adverse impact on cardiovascular, renal, and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality are globally increasing.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The objective of the study is to detect the adverse outcomes of uncontrolled hypertension and review the treatment patterns in the management of hypertension to reduce its further complications. To assess whether the higher prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension or poor adherence to antihypertensive therapy or both may explain the higher prevalence of hypertensive complications.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In the study, the prevalence of hypertension was found to be 46% among the patient population with males (52.5%) being more prevalent than females (47.5%). Among all age groups, individuals aged 50-69 years were highly affected. From the study, it was found that a greater number of patients fall in the category of stage-2 hypertension (38.75%) followed by hypertension crisis (28.75%), stage-1 hypertension (25%), and normal (7.5%). More patients with uncontrolled hypertension experienced cardiovascular complications (55%) when compared to cerebrovascular (27.5%) and renal (17.5%) complications. The choice of antihypertensive drugs used in the management were diuretics (43.75%), CCB (41.25%), ARB (37.5%), BB (32.5%), B+A (11.25%), ACEI (6.25%), CS (3.75%), and AAB (2.5%). The most commonly prescribed drugs in the study were Furosemide (11.25%), Telmisartan (11.25%), Amlodipine (7.5%), and Metoprolol (6.25%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study concludes that most of the patients with uncontrolled hypertension were suffering from cardiovascular complications with least being affected by renal and cerebrovascular complications. A regular and moderate degree of physical activity in combination with good lifestyle choices may have a good impact on hypertension control thus preventing further complications. However, blood pressure control is obtained in some individuals, while in some blood pressure was still elevated after the drug management due to the presence of co-morbid conditions and poor lifestyle modifications.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Dr. Amreen Sultana Shaima Fatima Arham Sultana Summaya Anum Mohd Ziya Uddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 10 3 94 102 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1139 A Review on Hypertensive Drug Prescription <p>Hypertension is considered to be the vital reason of mobidity and mortality in the society. It is an important risk aspect for cerebro-vascular, cardiovascular, and renal problems. A number of national and international guidelines for the management of hypertension have been published. The increasing occurrence of hypertension and the frequently escalating expenditure of its treatment control the prescribing patterns amongst physicians and compliance to the treatment by the patients. from the time when several years ago, diuretics were calculated as the first-line drugs for management of hypertension therapy; however, the recent guidelines by the Joint National Commission (JNC8 guidelines) advise both calcium channel blockers in addition to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors as first-line drugs, in adding up to diuretics. This assessment aims on the antihypertensive medication utilization, adherence to treatment by patients, and physicians’ adherence to guidelines in prescribing medications in various settings. The antihypertensive medication prescribing pattern studies assist to observe, estimate and essential changes to the prescribing practice to get rational and cost-effective treatment. In addition, there should always be an updating of recommended guidelines and inventive drug formulations, and prescription monitoring evaluations help in rational use of antihypertensive drugs, which can be tailored to go with the patients' requirements, counting those in the emergent countries.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Prashant Joshi Sanjay Singh Ritu Sanwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-10 2022-07-10 10 3 103 106 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1081 A Review Article of Polyherbal Tablet for the Management of Osteoporosis <p>Osteoporosis is an aging problem. The declining bone mineral density (BMD) enhances the chances of fractures during minor falls. Effective pharmaceuticals are available for a rapid improvement of BMD Osteoporosis is an enormous and growing public health problem. Once considered an inevitable consequence of ageing, it is now eminently preventable and treatable. Ironically, despite tremendous therapeutic advances, there is an increasing treatment gap for patients at high fracture risk. In this Series paper, we trace the evolution of drug therapy for osteoporosis, which began in the 1940s with the demonstration by Fuller Albright that treatment with oestrogen could reverse the negative calcium balance that developed in women after menopause or oophorectomy. We note a watershed in osteoporosis drug discovery around the year 2000, when the approach to developing novel therapeutics shifted from one driven by discoveries in animal studies and clinical observations (eg, oestrogen, calcitonin, and teriparatide) or opportunistic repurposing of existing compounds (eg, bisphosphonates) to one driven by advances in fundamental bone biology (eg, denosumab) coupled with clues from patients with rare bone diseases (eg, romosozumab, odanacatib). Despite these remarkable advances, concerns about rare side-effects of anti-resorptive drugs, particularly bisphosphonates, and the absence of clear evidence in support of their long-term efficacy is leading many patients who could benefit from drug therapy to not take these drugs. As such, there remains an important clinical need to develop ways to enhance patient acceptance and compliance with these effective drugs, and to continue to develop new drugs that do not cause these side-effects and have prolonged anabolic effects on bone. Such changes could lead to a true reversal of this potentially devastating disease of ageing.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Pooja . Twinkle Garg Ram Babu Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 10 3 1074 111 10.22270/ajprd.v10i3.1143